In this view, context is not a container for activity; it is the activity. Thus, comparative case studies lie at the crossroads of reality and theory; they present their evidence through the eyes of a knowledgeable specialist and they test it against the hypothetical constructs of a creative conceptualist. It is common to recognize that certain features are within the system, within the boundaries of the case, and other features outside… are significant as context , p. Further, the project documented how teachers creatively enacted language policy, influenced by their own biographies as language learners as well as the social and material conditions in their schools and surrounding communities. Webinar 6 on comparative case studies was presented by Dr. In other words, you would want to do case study research because you want to understand a real world case and assume that such an understanding is likely to involve important contextual conditions pertinent to your case.
Those aspects that are similar in both the cases need not be recorded, because here you are not making two case studies but only a comparison of the cases. It should be clear from this example that the three axes of a comparative case study are mutually imbricated. Globalization and the research imagination. Teachers commented frequently on the contradictory pressures created for them by the language, curricular, and assessment policies. By doing so, it reviewed theoretical notions of defence and security studies, contemporary concepts in education for the armed forces and national security, and it offered a case study of Portugal in this field. While we would agree with some of what Stake, Yin, and Merriam promote, their approaches suffer from serious limitations, which we outline in the next section.
Iran: Arzoo Osanloo is Associate Professor in the Law, Societies, and Justice Program at the University of Washington. Finally, it insists on attention to social interactions, which may or may not transpire in person. An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology. The study's findings can be used to help negotiation scholars and practitioners strategically manage the opportunities and challenges inherent in negotiation linkage dynamics. In this view, place becomes a static, dead object. Each trait coded by one rater is correlated with each trait coded by a second, and all the codings by a single rater are inter. To this argument, this article employs two case studies: the mediation efforts leading up to the Sudan Comprehensive Peace Agreement concluded in 2005 and the Darfur Peace Agreement concluded in 2006.
Henri Lefebvre and Education: space, history, theory. We assert that, beyond falsification, cases generate rich theoretical insights that transfer to other times and places. Fuzzy fields: Multi-sited ethnography in sociological research. We distinguished key issues in negotiation research and identified methodological trends over time 1965-2004. In other words, instead of assuming the autonomy of the primeval community, we need to examine how it was formed as a community out of the interconnected space that always already existed 1997, p.
Cases selected in this manner vary on identified characteristics of theoretical interest. The vertical axis insists on simultaneous attention to and across scales see also Bray; Thomas, 1995; , 1997. What we aim for with our comparative case study approach is akin to what anthropologist Ulf , p. To represent this aspect, some scholars refer to contextual or ecological validity. The question pilots this research is: what qualitative factors are applied in government audit materiality judgment? This is a quite different conceptualization of replication design as promoted by Yin and the need for tightly-bounded units of analysis that it implies. A careful vertical analysis across scales is also important to the type of case study approach we propose.
Further, rethinking the production of and interconnections across sites reveals the sociocultural production of inequality. Our processual approach to comparison considers strings of relevant events and actors; it eschews staid notions of culture or context to consider those processes across space and time; and it constantly compares what is happening in one locale with what has happened in other places and historical moments. In the case that you wish to compare more than two groups, or the number of cases is large, the study begins to approach , a method that is discussed on another page. Fourth, traditional approaches do not robustly defend the generalizability of case study findings. We find this notion of bounding the case from the outset to be problematic.
We contend that boundaries are not found; they are made by social actors, including by researchers, whose demarcations can often seem quite arbitrary and can have the effect of sealing off the case hermetically from other places, times, and influences. Purposeful sampling enables researchers to move away from the indeterminacy that makes generalizations from case studies problematic and in the direction of valid causal explanations of social and political phenomena; for example, the role that research-based knowledge has played in preparing for a probable disaster. The United Kingdom: Ben Ansell and Jane Gingrich are Assistant Professors of Political Science at the University of Minnesota. Through a process of collective sensemaking they are able to create a bigger room for different research practices and competences, and thereby also for changing and adapting. It is an integrated system….
In developing societies, despite widespread fear of crime, potential consumers sometimes favor in-house measures over private security firms and electronic devices. Nigeria: Alexandra Scacco is Assistant Professor of Politics at New York University. The larger study also made use of horizontal comparisons across six high schools in two adjacent regions in Tanzania to demonstrate the significant impact of transnational institutions and social movements on the material conditions of local schools and on the organizational dynamics within them. Reassembling the Social: an introduction to actor-network theory. The case may appear too obvious and non-problematic.