An is the diagnostic test of choice. Over the years, the prevalence has increased and it is likely to continue increasing in the future. The life cycle of F. The cercaria escapes through the birth opening of the redia. This tegument layers helps the animal to overcome the digestive action of the host fluids.
In many infections these symptoms cause further complications such as stone formation, recurrent pyogenic and cancer. If a patient has eaten infected liver, and the eggs pass through the body and out via the faeces, a false positive result to the test can occur. The tubules of the ovary open into a common narrow tube, the oviduct. Structure of Fasciola : a. Interspaces between the organs are packed with parenchyma cells. Sensory organs are absent from F. The life cycle of is completed within two hosts.
Heavy chronic infection is fatal in sheep, alpacas, and llamas. The sporocyst is elongated, with an internal cavity containing germ balls and lined by a layer of cells, with remnants of the eye spots and flame cells. Platy- flat; helminthes- worm Platyhelminthes is commonly known as flatworm or tapeworm. The muscles of this oral sucker radiate from the margins of the mouth to the periphery of the sucker. The body is covered with a cuticle, the greater portion of which bears minute spines.
. Flukes migrate into smaller and when feeding within the host. The intestine is bifurcated into two caeca and gives off numerous branches or diverticula in order to carry food to all parts of the body. Copulation takes place in the bile duct of the host. The excretory wastes, which are fatty acids and ammonia, diffuse from the surrounding mesenchyme into the flame cells and finally collected by their intracellular cavities. Some tegumentary spines are also present which are over-layed by the superficial plasma membrane. The countries in red are those with high prevalence, those in orange have low-medium prevalence.
The digested food material is distributed by branching diverticula of intestine to all parts of the body as the circulatory system is not found in this animal. It is brown to pale-grey in colour and measures 2. The germ balls, eventually, undergo a process of cleavage, resulting in the formation of redia larva first generation. The undigested food is ejected through the mouth. Mode of parthenogenetic reproduction of larvae further ensures the continuity of their race.
The suckers receive more supply. In Asia and Africa, people are infected both by F. Several drugs are available for treating pinworm infection. Female: The female part of the reproductive system consists of a single ovary or germarium. The right side of the diagram shows the cysts attached to grass. At the posterior end, one pair of nerves becomes thicker than the others; these are known as the lateral nerve cords. Several drugs are available to treat infected ruminants, including triclabendazole, clorsulon cattle and sheep only , albendazole, netobimin, closantel, rafoxanide, and oxyclozanide.
Adult worms attach to the intestinal lining using their sucker devices and hooks. Feeding and Digestion: The fluke often migrates into the bile ducts and the capillaries of the host for nourishment. In contrast, the free-living stages of the parasite generally develop within oxygen-rich environments. On Parasite : Due to parasitic life, considerable degeneration of the vegetative organs has taken place in Fasciola. Digestive System of Fasciola : i. It consists of Flame cells, which are modified mesenchyme cells of irregular shape and send out pseudopodial processes into the surrounding tissue.
There is a short narrow oesophagus leading into an intestine which divides into two branches or intestinal caeca or crura each running on one side to the posterior end, and ending blindly. Adult flukes produce eggs which are passed out through the excretory pore. It also helps in the absorption of nutrients particularly glucose from the host. This longitudinal excretory canal extends up to posterior end of the body where it opens out through single excretory pore. Release of Fertilized Eggs from Primary Hosts sheep Body: After being released from the ovary, the eggs are fertilized either in the oviduct or within the ootype. It consists of an outer layer of circular muscle fibres, middle layer of longitudinal muscle fibres and an inner layer of diagonal muscle fibres which are more developed in the anterior half of the body. The worm larvae migrate to the liver where they develop into adults.