It is barred from enforcing federal drinking water standards when fracking is involved — unless the contaminant is diesel, as per a provision in the 2005 Energy Policy Act. But by most accounts, America's fracking boom — especially in areas of shale gas — isn't going to stop anytime soon: The Annual Energy Outlook 2012 predicted that the country's ample supply of shale gas will account for nearly half of the natural gas produced in the U. The industry understands that water is a valuable natural resource and is mindful of the amount of water needed for the hydraulic fracturing process. Science of the Total Environment. A report from the Pennsylvania Dept of Environmental Protection indicated that there is little potential for radiation exposure from oil and gas operations.
Hydraulic fracturing, commonly called fracking, is a drilling technique used for extracting oil or natural gas from deep underground. Because wells can be fractured multiple times, the total amount of water used for fracking is unknown and can vary by location and technology. By creating or restoring fractures, the surface area of the formation exposed to the borehole is increased and the fracture provides a conductive path connecting the reservoir to the well, which effectively increases the rate that fluids can be produced from the reservoir formationsIt cannot be denied that people and governments need this resource in wake of technology changes. Natural gas is a flammable gas mixture consisting of methane and several other hydrocarbons that occur naturally underground. Fracking has been pursued by countries like Canada, India, the U.
Progress in mapping as well as mechanical equipment have given fracking companies the ability to drill efficiently and retrieve greater amounts of natural gas. Bromine can substitute for some chlorine, forming brominated trihalomethanes. All of this is increased by fracking and can be prevented. How can fracking booms damage infrastructure and create social problems? Hydraulic fracturing also affects individuals nearby, like the case previously discussed about the nurse who became ill after exposure from treating a hydraulic fracturing worker Frankowski, 2008. Hydraulic Fracking Research Paper and Why the process of Fracking is bad for our environment Hydraulic fracturing experimentation started in 1947 and it had its first commercially successful applications by 1949, so it has been around for a long time. Fracking took hold here years before its potential health impacts were considered. These locations are often restricted to a small core of only a few counties.
North Dakota Bakken Formation The , Department of Mineral Resources, Oil and Gas Division, regulates the drilling and production of oil and gas in North Dakota. Scientists have recently discovered that these companies that take place in all of the fracking have been doing so at far shallower depths than once thought. Fracking is a temporary process. Shale gas production has increased 20% from 2005 to 2012, promoting a more prosperous economic demand for domestic energy solutions Pritchard. Wastewater from fracking has also been linked to livestock and across the country.
Although methane in water has not been studied closely as a health hazard, it can seep into houses and build up to explosive levels. Chronic silicosis is the most common occurring after 10—20 years of low to moderate exposure of respirable crystalline silica. But hasn't fracking been done in the United States for many years? Earthquakes were reported in areas where there had previously been no recorded earthquakes. The compound 1,4-dichlorobezene was detected in 3 out of 8 oil and gas sites, 3 out of 4 urban sites, and 1 out of 2 rural background sites. Hydraulic fracturing Scientists are worried that the chemicals used in fracturing may pose a threat either underground or when waste fluids are handled they are sometimes spilled on the surface which can cause site contamination or find its way back to water clean water.
Aging pipelines pose special risks as they deteriorate. Out of 2,500 products used as hydraulic fracturing additives in the United States, 652 contained one or more of 29 chemical compounds which are either known or possible human carcinogens, regulated under the for their risks to human health, or listed as hazardous air pollutants under the. That reliance on natural gas has sometimes blinded agencies to local pollution and health impacts associated with the resource, said Rob Jackson, an earth scientist at Stanford and co-author of the study. Oftentimes, the shaft is drilled down through the aquifer on its way to the shale formations below. Despite this, as of early 2011 federal and state regulators did not require sewage treatment plants that accept drilling waste which is mostly water to test for radioactivity. Cuadrilla before it could begin drilling at its Preston New Road site at Little Plumpton in Lancashire.
Since 2005, more than 100,000 oil and gas wells have been drilled and fracked in the United States. There are two types of impoundments, those that hold drilling waste, used while drilling the well bore, and impoundments for the fracking fluid. Geophysicist Cliff Frohlich researched seismic activity on the Barnett Shale in Texas from 2009 to 2011. Once the vertical well reaches the deep layer of rock where natural gas or oil exists, the well curves about 90 degrees and begins drilling horizontally along that rock layer. Fracking proponents argue that there is no way for the contaminants to migrate due to the significant space between the activity and the aquifer. However, there needs to be more regulation of the industry and monitoring of the impacts of the practice to ensure that it is done in a safe manner. If the shaft is poorly constructed, there is potential for the fracking fluid to leak directly into the aquifer as it is going down or coming back up as flowback.
Industry has denied such types of fracking. Why do we believe fracking is so risky for our water, air, wildlife and climate that it should be banned? The United States has been involved in conflicts with various Middle Eastern countries over oil and the war on terror. Fracking activities have been linked to ground water contamination in a variety of ways. The sand in fracking fluid keeps the fractures open after the pressure is released, and the chemicals are chiefly agents to reduce friction and prevent corrosion. Key state regulations include: Review and approval of permits; well design, location and spacing; drilling operations; water management and disposal; air emissions; wildlife impacts; surface disturbance; worker health and safety; and inspection and enforcement of day-to-day oil and gas operations. The way this opportunity has presented itself, was through the courageous acts of many gas companies using a process called fracking.