These two main characteristics of rational comprehensive planning makes it to be perceived as a necessary rational tool to safe guard public interest and guide communities into the desired long range future. I will use brainstorming concept in this chapter to select good program. Bounded rationality is the idea in decision-making, rationality of individuals is limited by the information they have, the cognitive limitations of their minds and the finite time they have to make a decision. Furthermore, the assumptions stated by Simon are never fully valid in a real world context. Well, it depends on what you are trying to comprehend, and also what theorist you go with. For the source and more detailed information concerning this subject, click on the related links section Answers. Understanding Public Policy 12th ed.
Rather, he says that they first have to identify and formulate the problems on which they make decisions23. The decision maker must determine the relevant factors to take into account when making the decision. Assumptions of the Rational Decision-Making Model The rational model of decision making assumes that people will make choices that maximize benefits and minimize any costs. Critiques of the Rational Model Critics of rational choice theory —or the rational model of decision-making—claim that this model makes unrealistic and over-simplified assumptions. The main strength of a rational decision making model is that it provides structure and discipline to the decision making process. Decision Making Model Analysis Decision- making and critical thinking have a distinct relationship, it is a relationship where one is used as a support tool for the other.
The idea of rational choice is easy to see in economic theory. All significant consequences of each alternative strategy are predicted and the probability of those consequences occurring is estimated. This model, used largely in studies of organizational behavior, provides a sequential system for making decisions to be used by managers and groups in organizations and businesses. Equity What are the effects of this policy on different population groups? Are there significant costs associated with this solution, and are they worth it? One often employed but highly controversial model for decision-making found in this field is the rational planning model. The option that promises to yield the greatest net benefit is selected. For exploring the alternatives it is necessary to gather information. Also see Henig piece on Supplemental Ed.
The option that promises to yield the greatest net benefit is selected. For instance, it is a difficult model to apply in the public sector because social problems can be very complex, ill-defined and interdependent. Evolution of different planning models Different authors and scholars coined different which evolved over time. Rational policy-making also requires information about alternative policies, the predictive capacity to foresee accurately the consequences of alternative policies, and the intelligence to calculate correctly the ratio of costs to benefits. Gathering information What is relevant and what is not relevant to the decision? Steps after the decision include naming the change monitor and identifying the monitoring methods.
It is difficult to have each person agree on common goals as each and every person perceives issues differently and have different interests. The best solution having been chosen for implementation, different strategies of how to apply the solutions to the site are developed based on criteria assessment and analysis and finally implementation of the preferred alternative. The approach follows a sequential and formal path of activities. The phrase indicates that failing to change the status quo is also a decision, when either choice would change that condition or the circumstances under which it would be considered. A brief history of Rational Planning Model The rational planning model is the process of understanding a problem followed by establishing and evaluating planning criteria, formulation of alternatives and implementing them and finally monitoring the progress of the chosen alternatives.
The process places power and trust in the hands of the planner who is seen as an expert bearing all the information required to solve problems. The polis model of decision making is characteristic of politicians, public figures, and corporate managers, who intentionally frame problems incompletely, identify goals either partially or articulate one set of goals publicly and another privately, fail to reveal all possible alternatives, and who choose the alternative that will preserve his or her own interests, not necessarily the interests of the larger group. Bounded Rationality Other researchers in the field of behavioral economics have also tried to explain why human behavior often goes against pure economic rationality. Each of these models are based upon the types of policies. Very often the quantity, quality, accuracy, and integrity of information may be found wanting. The pros and cons of the rational decision-making approach suggests that it finds use as a facilitating tool to aid decision-making and supplement the existing system in certain situations. Constructing a logic model for a healthy public policy: why and how? Analyzing the situation What alternative courses of action may be available to you? Comprehension is manifested when a reader interacts with the text.
They also tend to regret their decisions more often perhaps because they are more able than satisficers to recognize when a decision has turned out to be sub-optimal. If the problem is not identified properly then we may face a problem as each and every member of the group might have a different definition of the problem. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1994. One salient feature of the rational model is that the model is rational per se. The decision-maker is confronted with a problem that can be separated from other problems or at least considered meaningfully with them.
The rational method infuses the decision-making process with discipline, consistency, and logic. For example : if the choice is to buy … white socks or blue socks, failing to decide means you have no new socks of any color. Despite the criticism levelled against rational comprehensive approach to planning, the approach has taken root in most countries as the paradigm of choice and is the most utilised approach in decision —making. Human beings cannot comprehend everything nor can they even fully comprehend one planning aspect. However, one should not view rationalism in a narrow Pula-and-Thebe framework, in which basic social values are sacrificed for Pula savings. Rather, they largely contribute to the further modification.
I will discuss the issue and show how the Rational Model of decision- making was effectively utilized to reach a. Developing options Generate several possible options. For example, it can be safely predicted that, in the Sahara desert, life-forms, whether animal or plant, will have metabolisms that work to conserve optimally moisture. Systems consist of individual parts which interact with one another and with the outside world to make a complete whole. This process contains secondary analysis and evaluation of the information and possible options to anticipate the consequences of each and every possible alternative that is thought of.