Central to the social exchange theory is the idea that an interaction that elicits approval from another person is more likely to be repeated than an interaction that elicits disapproval. His theory analyzes the development of exchange theory in economics without emphasizing on the psychological assumptions. Proposition seven will only work if the individual has the freedom to be excluded from outside factors while in a social exchange relationship. For example, the theory does not address the role of altruism in determining relationship outcomes. Interpersonal Competence Interpersonal Competence or Social Skills are the abilities to positively interact and communicate with other individuals. The principles of operant conditioning apply to this theory, in that if something is rewarding, we are more likely to pursue it.
In such a model, mutual relationship satisfaction ensures relationship stability. Equity theory rests on the assumption that people are self-interested and will try to maximize their personal gains. Also, a theory may always be disproven, but it must then be replaced with a better theory. For example, some individuals may be high in exchange orientation, constantly keeping track of how much they and their partners put into or get out of a relationship. The Social Exchange Theory key concepts are very difficult to define. Russell Cropanzano and Marie S.
Therefore, although social exchange principles have implications for a variety of different types of social relationships, they may explain some types of relationships better than others. People consider relationships worth pursuing if the Comparison Level is equal to, or better than, what they experienced in their previous relationships. The theory… 982 Words 4 Pages others when we are infants. As long as the contributions are perceived as equal, the relationship remains stable and happy. Equity in a relationship may be seen as its own reward. Equity theory is considered as one of the justice theories; it was first developed in 1962 by John Stacey Adams, a workplace and behavioral psychologist, who asserted that employees seek to maintain equity between the inputs that they bring to a job and the outcomes that they receive from it against the perceived inputs and outcomes of others Adams, 1965. According to the Social Exchange theory, with each interaction an individual has with another, that individual attempts to maximize the positive outcomes and minimize the negative.
In other social associations, exchange of specific rewards is its very objective. The reciprocity principle refers to the mutual reinforcement by two parties of each other's actions. This study uses one of the tenets of social exchange theory to explain that obligations are generated through a series of interactions between parties who are in a state of reciprocal interdependence. If the current relationship compares favourably, the person is motivated to stay in the relationship. The social psychology of groups. Both people incur benefits and costs simultaneously. Measuring exchange orientation may be a way of measuring self-interest in relationships.
In this type of relationship, where identities of the individual partners have merged, what benefits one partner will also benefit the other. How many people would you say have left your life, even if they were at some point very important to you? As with everything dealing with the social exchange theory, it has as its outcome satisfaction and dependence of relationships. Specifically, researchers find that the more socially desirable people are the more attractive, personable, famous, rich, or considerate they are , the more socially desirable they will expect a mate to be. Fate control is the ability to affect a partner's outcomes. According to this theory, the dependence a person has on another brings up the concept of power.
Homans developed five key propositions that assist in structuring individuals' behaviors based on rewards and costs. It has sometimes been questioned by researchers who believe that the nature of close relationships differs from other types of relationships. Also, dating couples are more likely to fall in love if they perceive their relationships to be equitable. Hatfield Walster and her colleagues 1978 provide two ways that a person can restore equity to a relationship: by restoring actual equity or by restoring psychological equity the perception that equity actually exists when it does not. However, a significant portion of cases can be usefully explained by invoking injustice as an explanatory concept. In addition, these principles can be applied to understanding relationships involving individual people or social groups.
If your next romantic partner tends to be more reserved and less emotional, that person might not measure up to your expectations. If you have always had poor friendships, your comparison levels at the will be much lower than a person who has always had a close-knit circle of. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World. A lot of other questions may very well be arising along the way. Investigation implies that you would be attempting to understand an underlying cause or implication of something you have observed. It also changes through the directionality of support given to and by the individual with the people within their support network.
Comparison level refers to the expectations for the relationship based on past experience. These patterns describe behavioral rules or norms that indicate how people trade resources in an attempt to maximize rewards and minimize costs. This had the effect of lowering the perceived profits associated with a potential new partner and thus reducing any threat to the current relationship. The assumptions that the Social Exchange theory makes are about human nature and the nature of relationships. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences.