It becomes a balance of a business leader's natural style and understanding when and where it needs to be altered. Token systems can be used in an individual or group format. There can be various constraints such as time, cost and resources due to which it can become difficult for the managers to gather all the information and analyze that information completely. Organizations operating within the may have to adapt to variations in local, state, and federal laws and regulations. Contingency theory attempts to analyse and understand these interrelationships with a view towards taking the specific managerial actions necessary to deal with the issue.
Rather than having a specific solution to solve problems, it provides a framework where every solution depends upon the environmental conditions. These contingencies are delivered based on abstinence and attendance goals and can take the form of vouchers, the opportunity to win prizes, or privileges. The contingency approach is effective only when a company has complete control over the roles and the behavior of its employees. These criticisms are only theoretical in nature. It dispels the universal validity of principles. One size does not fit all when it comes to the contingency approach. It takes into account the full range of human needs and motives.
A manager in an organization with a contingency approach may feel pressured to perform because he is responsible for assigning employees different roles within each project. Use of vouchers to reinforce abstinence and positive behaviors among clients in a drug court treatment program. In addition to the contingencies identified above, customer diversity and the globalization of business may require product or service diversity, employee diversity, and even the creation of special units or divisions. Eventually, greater understanding and awareness of contingency management may assist in bringing this empirically based intervention into a variety of psychiatric settings and specialty areas. It is argued that what contingency theory asserts was asserted by Fayol also.
Superiority of Contingency Approach Clear-cut emergence of contingency approach to management was noticed after the popularization of. The pacesetter leads by example, whereas the affiliative leader wants to fit in and build relationships with subordinates, thereby creating an inclusive environment. Organizational Structure in its Context. It is not possible for managers to determine all the factors relevant to the decision making situation. It is important for a manager to adapt his leadership style to match the culture of a business and the needs of its employees.
This approach is both analytical and situational, with the purpose of developing a practical answer to the question at hand. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 3 4 , 512—527. She noted that requirements were constantly changing and continuous efforts were needed to maintain effective working relationships. For example, the one adjective set might be: tardy and early. It is too abstract and difficult to apply in practice.
On the other hand, unstable environments suggest organic structures that emphasize decentralization to achieve flexibility and adaptability. It is adaptive in nature. A leader's effectiveness is based on the situation. Simple or complex control and coordination mechanisms? People who are very task oriented will do well when conditions are either very favorable or very unfavorable. What a manager does depends upon a given situation and there is an active inter-relationship between the variables in a situation and the managerial action. Greater awareness and use of contingency management in practice may improve outcomes across a range of mental health and related conditions. Their approach is to identify the conditions of a task scientific management school , managerial job administrative management school and person human relations school as parts of a complete management situation and attempt to integrate them all into a solution which is most appropriate for a specific circumstance.
As individuals were reinforced for attending groups, group sizes and participant morale increased, along with provider morale. Various aspects of the situation have been identified as impacting the effectiveness of different leadership styles. In other words, managers should identify the conditions of a task, the requirements of the management job, and people involved as parts of a complete management situation. Her concept of the law of the situation referred to the necessity of acting in accordance with the specific requirements of a given situation. You can divide these eight situations into three broad categories: favorable situations, intermediate situations and unfavorable situations. They should be treated as complementary to each other.
Reasons for the lack of use range from little formal training or coursework in behaviour analysis generally or contingency management specifically, ideological concerns, disconnect between research and practice, and costs. For example, in , manufacturing companies have had great success engaging workers in shop-floor decision making, which has resulted in large positive productivity and quality results. Token systems have been shown to be successful with a diverse array of populations including those suffering from addiction, those with special needs, and delinquents. Although the contingency perspective purports to apply to all aspects of management, and not just organizing and leading, there has been little development of contingency approaches outside organization theory and leadership theory. Nonetheless, research in the 1960s and 1970s focused on situational factors that affected the appropriate structure of organizations and the appropriate leadership styles for different situations. Fiedler identified the a Least Preferred Co-Worker scoring for leaders by asking them first to think of a person with which they worked that they would like least to work with again, and then to score the person on a range of scales between positive factors friendly, helpful, cheerful, etc. .