Basic needs are physiological, such as food, water, and sleep; and psychological, such as affection, security, and self esteem. Hopefully, you will have a Theory Y manager, because a Theory Y manager encourages you to do your best and usually gives honest, positive feedback about how you're doing on the job. Our Proactive Leaders Solve Issues Heads-On We lead from the front. Management use of Theory X and Theory Y can affect employee motivation and productivity in different ways, and managers may choose to implement strategies from both theories into their practices. What is most important, the two theories — X and Y — are not mutually exclusive. Thus: The first part asked a participant to write creative and imaginative stories in response to six ambiguous pictures. Encouragement and rewards are used rather than control and coercion.
Thus, he encouraged cordial team relations, responsible and stimulating jobs, and participation of all in decision-making process. While, at the first glance, it might seem that Theory X is outdated and should not be applied to present-day working environments, the effectiveness of certain leadership style depends on the structure, size, and type of commodities that a particular organization produces. Nothing in our data indicates that either set of assumptions was valid at Akron. This theory tries to study this question of motivation to identify successful approaches to management. Employees are not dependent on bonuses and sanctions, and they are independent in deciding the volumes of work they should do within a particular time period.
An outstanding title can increase tweets, Facebook Likes, and visitor traffic by 50% or more. Relations with others: The people at Akron perceived a great deal of similarity among themselves in background, prior work experiences, and approaches for tackling job-related problems. McGregor's X-Y theory is a salutary and simple reminder of the natural rules for managing people, which under the pressure of day-to-day business are all too easily forgotten. Only it, he believed, could motivate human beings to the highest levels of achievement. People want to use their creativity and they like to take a creative problem solving approach. Maslow's hierarchy of needs consist of physiological needs lowest level , safety needs, love needs, esteem needs, and highest level. It would appear that the optimal approach to human resource management would lie somewhere between these extremes.
It harmonizes and matches employees needs and aspirations with organizational needs and aspirations. People view work as being as natural as play and rest. Little emphasis is shown towards developing a positive work environment, and recognition and appreciation would be rare. Because managers and supervisors are in almost complete control of the work, this produces a more systematic and uniform product or work flow. On the contrary, managers who choose the Theory Y approach have a hands-off style of management.
In order to achieve the most efficient production, a combination of both theories may be appropriate. Human beings bring varying patterns of needs and motives into the work organization, but one central need is to achieve a sense of competence. Since feelings of competence are thus reinforced by successful performance, they can be a more consistent and reliable motivator than salary and benefits. As a result, Theory Y followers may have a better relationship with their boss, creating a healthier atmosphere in the workplace. It's either something you are born with or born without. With such an unpredictable, fast-changing task as communications technology research, there were numerous approaches to getting the job done well.
The first, usually called the classical school of organization, emphasizes the need for well-established lines of authority, clearly defined jobs, and authority equal to responsibility. Next, the management directs the efforts of the employees and motivate and control their actions, to make them work as per the needs of the organisation. And a bit of entertainment. This led companies to focus on how their employees were motivated, managed, and led, creating a Theory Y management style which focuses on the drive for individual self — fulfillment. It is very much a nature as opposed to nurture approach to explaining leadership. In addition to their preference for a certain leadership style and the work that has to be done, a manager will either opt for Theory X or Theory Y. There are plenty of people who possess the personality traits associated with leadership, yet many of these people never seek out positions of leadership.
In 1960, Douglas McGregor formulated Theory X and Theory Y suggesting two aspects of human behaviour at work, or in other words, two different views of individuals employees : one of which is negative, called as Theory X and the other is positive, so called as Theory Y. The Human Side of Enterprise. He referred to these two perceptions as Theory X and Theory Y. Based on these assumptions, it can be deduced that management is held responsible for arranging the resources with the aim of achieving economic and social ends. Theory X managers and supervisors are sometimes called micro-managers.
McGregor urged companies to adopt Theory Y. Further, they must be monitored, persuaded, rewarded and punished, or else they will remain idle. If people do the work as desired, they may even get monetary or other rewards. This theory is an attempt to understand what actually motivates employees to go to work each day and whether people like to be independent and work hard themselves or they always need a leader to control and guide them. Douglas McGregor, The Human Side of Enterprise New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.
An organization with this style of management is made up of several levels of supervisors and managers who actively intervene and micromanage the employees. They can and should be combined and implemented in accordance with the current organizational or team goals and needs. Furthermore, most people prefer to be treated this way, so they can avoid responsibility. This region, in particular, houses hundreds of chandelier makers and lighting firms, some of which even date back to the Ottoman Empire. Patty Mulder is an Dutch expert on Management Skills, Time Management, Personal Effectiveness and Business Communication. Many organizations use Theory Y techniques.