Respondents who harbor a negative attitude towards a particular group may not wish be admit to the experimenter or to themselves that they have these feelings. Attitude is a settled way of thinking or feeling about something - Dictionary meaning. It is a computer based technique. Ranking delivers an ordinal score. Given this problem, various methods of measuring attitudes have been developed. For example scales for measuring physical quantities like - length, weight, etc.
Consider the following items, with which the respondents are asked to agree or disagree: 1 Co-education in the long run helps subsequent marital adjustments. But approximations to them can be developed. Second, the answers provided are on an ordinal scale. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Psychology. Responses rank the objects, concepts, people, or brands by comparing them to similar alternatives. Conative: Refers to action tendency, i. A ratio scale might ask you to fill in your annual income or square footage of your house, where instead of choosing an arbitrary measurement, you are filling in a blank.
In other words, the investigator exerts to identify the items which have a high discriminatory power. Each point of the scale carries a score. Attitudes have three components: 1 Affective, which deals with a person's feelings and emotions 2 Cognitive, which deals with a person's awareness and knowledge 3 Behavioral, which deals with a person's actions Researchers have developed a variety of attitude rating scales to measure the intensity of an attitude's affective, cognitive, and behavioral components. Attitudes about products or services are composed of three elements: of the product or service in the mind of the consumer. First, it is easier for respondents to select one item from a choice of two than to rank a larger set of objects, concepts, people, or brands. The most common are - Likert, Sementic, Staple and Multiple Dimension.
Typically researchers use a scale from 1 through 7. The favorable items may be crossed and favorable items may be left unscored. These scales may require a respondent to rank, rate, sort, and choose when we assess an attitude. Here are some examples of subjects that an attitude survey might attempt to measure. Semantic Differential Scales: Semantic differential scales measure respondents' attitudes about the strengths and weaknesses of a concept or construct. Example: Rank the following smart phones with one being the brand that best meets the characteristic and six being the brand that is the worst on the characteristic. If it is favorable, then the consumer is likely to purchase the product or service.
Such findings cast serious doubts on the meaning of the scale positions and the distances between them. Such scales are often called monadic rating scales. Constant Sum Scales: Constant sum scales require respondents to divide a set number of points, usually 100, to rate two or more attributes. Unbalanced scales are often used when pilot studies suggest that more opinions are positive than negative, or more negative than positive. Typically researchers conduct qualitative research before designing the scales. Here are some examples of subjects that an attitude survey might attempt to measure. They essentially take the form of the multiple category questions.
Each scale item has 5 response categories ranging from strongly agree and strongly disagree. Depending upon the attitude to be measured, appropriate scales are designed. So next time its easy for us to find out which attitude we are possessing. Users may not alter it. These scales are the least restrictive of all scales and really represent a list of categories. Interpretations should be made with caution and the limitations of projective tests should be considered. We tend to approach, seek out or be associated with things we like; we avoid, shun or reject things we do not like.
Step 7: Drop redundant items. Company Name Less Known 1 2 3 4 5 Well Known Functions Few 1 2 3 4 5 Many Price Low 1 2 3 4 5 High Design Poor 1 2 3 4 5 Good Overall Satisfaction Very Dis-Satisfied 1 2 3 4 5 Very Satisfied Such a scale permits the researcher to say that position 5 on the scale is above position 4 and also the distance from 5 to 4 is same as distance from 4 to 3. The social distance scale which has become a classic technique in the measurement of attitudes toward ethnic or racial groups lists a number of relationships to which members of a given ethnic group might be admitted. Consequently, responses on attitude scales are not always 100% valid. On the basis of taste we classify the brands into tasty, moderate and non tasty.
Rating: Rating asks respondents the extent to which an item of interest possesses a characteristic. The scale is named after Rensis Likert, who developed this scale in 1932 for his doctoral dissertation. A goodness of fit is traded off on a large number of attributes. The ratio scales are very common in physical scenarios. Sliders allow respondents to make finely tuned responses using a continuous scale. That is, it should be possible to arrange all the responses of any number of subjects into a pattern such as the one given below: The important thing about this pattern is that if it holds good, i. Likert Scale: The Likert scale allows respondents to state how strongly they agree or disagree with an attitude.