They make it possible to communicate quickly, and that's what makes them a form of abbreviation. We wish you the best in your research and writing! These are the two most often misused and confused Latin abbreviations-and for good reason. Both these books contain extensive chapters on proper form in using abbreviations, as well as the possessive and plural forms of abbreviations. Increasingly, however, there is a tendency to write such initials without : John D Rockefeller, C Aubrey Smith, O J Simpson. Therefore, it might be more useful to read cf. Also, we can use U. She was born in 1520 B.
Abbreviation obscurity While you may occasionally encounter the following abbreviations in your academic career, they are becoming increasingly rare. Here, I provide just a few principles you can apply in using abbreviations and acronyms, and in the next section I offer a table of some of the forms most commonly used by student writers. When it comes to abbreviations of academic degrees, the abbreviation is usually either a long-established custom in the case of PhD or is standardized by the group that creates or accredits the degree program. Therefore, the readability of the abstract should be geared towards a non-expert. These are the usual French and Spanish abbreviations for Monsieur and Señor, equivalent to English Mister. It is traditional, and recommended, to write a.
In lists where you use etc. If you speak very formally, then write formally. Repetition — Say everything three times: introduce the ideas, explain them, and then give a summary. Abbreviations are supposed to be invented and utilized to handle this very issue: repetition It is worth mentioning that, in some cases, the abbreviated statement is well-known enough to the corresponding community. Thankfully, you don't have to know whether something is an abbreviation, initialism, or acronym to use it properly. Some months don't have an abbreviation because the spelling is already so short May , June , and July.
If your target journal does not supply a list, consider referring to its previously published papers for guidance on which abbreviations are considered standard. Saving space is not a sufficient reason to abbreviate; the abbreviation must also help the reader to comprehend your point. You should also be alert to the existence of proper nouns that look like acronyms. Unlike abbreviations, they aren't shorter spellings of words—they're made up of the words' initials. In other words, they abbreviate something in a contemporary way, using initials, slang, and other shorthand. The emperor Vespasian died in a. An acronym is an abbreviation formed from the initial letters of a term e.
If your writing is too formal, you start to sound pretentious and your essay loses credibility. Its more important to tell an interesting story and let any humor be inherent. Also usual are the abbreviations b. We hope that this handout will be useful to you as you decipher the Latin terms and abbreviations in your reading and perhaps begin to use them in your own writing! Such abbreviations are acceptable even in formal academic text and may be used without periods. There are some exceptions that are pronounced differently.
Although the abbreviation or acronym is capitalized for some common or generic nouns and terms, lowercase the spelled-out form. Formal Writing When writing formally, limit the number of abbreviations that are used. This makes them easier to remember, and easy for others to read. Written policies are definitely needed to restrict the usage of abbreviations. All four of them are also now very frequently written without : 753 bc, ad 79, 753 bce, 79 ce. And how to do you? They're spelled using letters that aren't part of the original word.
Two other common abbreviations are a. Likewise, the phrase for example can sometimes be abbreviated to e. If you are in doubt, explain the abbreviation the first time you use it. There is a space between the number and the abbreviation. But how exactly do you use acronyms and initialisms in academic writing? British usage favours omitting the in abbreviations which include the first and last letters of a single word, such as Mr, Mrs, Ms, Dr and St; American usage prefers A Mr.
Maybe you've seen it spelled a different way on a certain cereal box—ever heard of Cap'n Crunch? An abbreviation is a shortened form of a name or term e. The patient could not withstand this dosage and developed substantial respiratory depression and a weakened cardiac function, which required serious measures to correct the damage. In most formal prose, we do not use titles, abbreviated or otherwise, with individuals. Then, use the abbreviation, where ever you need. Used in informal writing or when not part of a sentence In situations other than those noted above, it is usually best to write out these terms in full.