The analysis is based on a unique data set combining panel household survey data with in-depth qualitative interviews of a subsample of male and female beneficiaries from the survey data collected between 2009 and 2015. When the bar is raised to include quality of service, the drop-off in the proportion of those with access is even more dramatic. For example, drones that supply regular food and medicine supply to remote communities are much more affordable than roads in the short term. First, the analysis finds that these cities fall far short of delivering universal access to basic infrastructure. Go, Maryla Maliszewska, and Israel Osorio-Rodarte by S.
They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature. Ayhan Kose, Franziska Ohnsorge, Lei Sandy Ye, Ergys Islamaj by M. Titles are submitted from units around the World Bank for internal review and inclusion in this series which is managed by the Development Economics Research Support unit. In addition to describing the scenarios in detail, the paper discusses the rationale for their creation, along with a brief discussion on the nature of uncertainty. Document Type: Policy Research Working Paper Report No.
Most conventional indicators measure nominal access --whether a household has physical access to a service in or near the house. In South Asia and the Middle East and North Africa, the expansion of irrigation increases unsustainable water extraction practices. Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 01-26. Ayhan Kose by Edward J. Third, there is an infrastructure access gap between nonpoor and poor households, as well as formal and informal settlements.
The results reveal that in India, food markets are imperfectly integrated across space, with the law of one price being systematically rejected, with heterogeneities across states and products. The paper does not find evidence for top-down growth spillovers. Ayhan Kose and Stijn Claessens by M. Investment costs quickly balloon as the rural accessibility index increases, questioning the affordability of universal access to paved roads for many countries by 2030. The analysis has broader implications for understanding and measuring service access. However, the effectiveness of irrigation to achieve a larger set of goals depends on the regional context. An earlier version was issued as World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 2146.
Document Type: Policy Research Working Paper Report No. Time: Data and Analysis , World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. This indicates that in addition to capital investment, the development of appropriate institutions and governance mechanisms to deliver maintenance, as well as the necessary funding streams, are essential for such a protection-based adaptation strategy to be effective. Document Type: Policy Research Working Paper Report No. But high levels can be damaging.
The mixed method analysis reveals that household composition, gender power dynamics, disability, care responsibilities, marital arrangements, intrahousehold communication, and access to other social programs and institutions play a crucial role in access to the Vision 2020 Umurenge Programme and related asset accumulation. The results show that in a sample of low- and middle-income countries, one standard deviation gain in literacy skill is associated with between 4. This association is significant using the World Bank's Doing Business indicators on getting credit and contract enforcement. There is substantial co-movement between wholesale and retail prices, although integration is still imperfect in all commodities but one: rice, for which perfect vertical integration cannot be rejected. The paper also uncovers three new stylized facts.
To find a causal impact of these changes on exports to the United States from a given beneficiary country, the analysis uses a triple-differences regression and 26 years of newly constructed trade and tariff data at the country-product-year level 1992-2017. It also explores the drivers of these costs, by exploring hundreds of scenarios that combine alternative assumptions on the level of service targeted, population growth, urbanization, industrial demand, and technology cost. The findings suggest that households would benefit from a broader definition of the eligibility criteria and the availability of flexible and complementary programming, to reap the benefits of the income transfer received from the program. These findings suggest that conventional nominal measures overreport the level of service in urban communities, and that current approaches to infrastructure delivery might be enhancing availability of a service without ensuring that the service is usable -- that is, functional, reliable and affordable. This paper explores the rational and legal basis for person-centredness of the Built Environment in Europe.
In the basic access scenario, costs depend mostly on industrial demand, which takes a large share of total demand. Amer Ahmed, Marcio Cruz, Delfin S. Beck, T, A Demirgüç-Kunt and R Levineon financial development and structure , World Bank Economic Review, no 14, pp 597 605. The findings suggest that the conduit for poverty reduction is business creation, as a source of new jobs and a manifestation of thriving entrepreneurship. Document Type: Policy Research Working Paper Report No.
World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. One of the central differentiating features of the three scenarios is the extent to which governments perform their roles as enabling, that is, whether the policies are designed to help or hinder innovations that improve service levels, and distributive, that is, whether the policies are designed to ensure that multiple segments of society reap the rewards of innovation. These findings nuance the existing consensus that public sector workers tend to enjoy a significant wage premium over their private sector counterparts, and that this premium is especially large in low-income countries. The analysis of the determinants of spatial integration reveals that prior to implementation of the Goods and Services Tax, the mere act of crossing a state border increased prices; unexploited gains from arbitrage persisted after considering the effects of transport costs; and information frictions and menu costs reduced market integration. Using that metric to translate the impact of interventions, a median structured pedagogy intervention increases learning by the equivalent of between 0.
First, it tests the extent of domestic spatial market integration for retail and wholesale markets in 2006—14 and 2008—15, respectively, and looks at patterns of price transmission of shocks from international sources. Beck, T, A Demirgüç-Kunt and R Levineon financial development and structure , World Bank Economic Review, no 14, pp 597 605. Many people judge as serious only those problems for which they think action can be taken. Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Working Paper. Retail prices adjust faster when wholesale prices rise than when wholesale prices fall. The results suggest that production gradually favors conserving the earth's resources as gross domestic product increases, but increased efficiency alone is not sufficient to offset the effects of growth in scale.